Ubuntu 18.04
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Vagrant : インストール
VirtualBox 等の仮想化ソフトウェアのラッパーツール Vagrant をインストールします。
主要な仮想化ソフトウェアには概ね対応していますが、当例では Vagrant デフォルトの VirtualBox インストール済みを前提とします。
[1] Vagrant をインストールしておきます。
apt -y install vagrant
[2] Vagrant の基本操作です。
# 仮想マシンイメージをダウンロードして追加

# ダウンロード可能な Box は公式サイト参照

# ⇒ https://app.vagrantup.com/boxes/search

vagrant box add ubuntu/bionic64

==> box: Loading metadata for box 'ubuntu/bionic64'
    box: URL: https://vagrantcloud.com/ubuntu/bionic64
==> box: Adding box 'ubuntu/bionic64' (v20181206.0.0) for provider: virtualbox
    box: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/ubuntu/boxes/bionic64/versions/20181206.0.0/providers/virtualbox.box
==> box: Successfully added box 'ubuntu/bionic64' (v20181206.0.0) for 'virtualbox'!

# 初期化 (カレントパスに Vagrantfile が作成される)

vagrant init ubuntu/bionic64

A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

# 仮想マシン起動

vagrant up

Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Importing base box 'ubuntu/bionic64'...
==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> default: Checking if box 'ubuntu/bionic64' is up to date...
==> default: Setting the name of the VM: root_default_1544409644158_44106
Vagrant is currently configured to create VirtualBox synced folders with
the `SharedFoldersEnableSymlinksCreate` option enabled. If the Vagrant
guest is not trusted, you may want to disable this option. For more
information on this option, please refer to the VirtualBox manual:


This option can be disabled globally with an environment variable:


or on a per folder basis within the Vagrantfile:

  config.vm.synced_folder '/host/path', '/guest/path', SharedFoldersEnableSymlinksCreate: false
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1)
==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations...
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address:
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Connection reset. Retrying...
    default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => /root

# 仮想マシンの状態

vagrant status

Current machine states:

default                   running (virtualbox)

The VM is running. To stop this VM, you can run `vagrant halt` to
shut it down forcefully, or you can run `vagrant suspend` to simply
suspend the virtual machine. In either case, to restart it again,
simply run `vagrant up`.

# 仮想マシンへ SSH で接続

vagrant ssh

Welcome to Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.15.0-42-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage

  System information as of Mon Dec 10 02:42:59 UTC 2018

  System load:  0.34             Processes:             100
  Usage of /:   9.8% of 9.63GB   Users logged in:       0
  Memory usage: 13%              IP address for enp0s3:
  Swap usage:   0%

  Get cloud support with Ubuntu Advantage Cloud Guest:

0 packages can be updated.
0 updates are security updates.

vagrant@ubuntu-bionic:~$ exit 

# 仮想マシン停止

vagrant halt

==> default: Attempting graceful shutdown of VM...
# 仮想マシンの設定を変更したい場合は設定ファイルを編集

vi Vagrantfile
# 例として CPU数とメモリー容量を変更

# 53行目から以下のようにコメント解除して値を変更

  config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb|
  #   # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine
  #   vb.gui = true
  #   # Customize the amount of memory on the VM:
     vb.memory = "4096"
     vb.cpus = 2