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MariaDB 10.5 : インストール
2021/09/13
 
MariaDB をインストールして、データベースサーバーを構築します。
[1] MariaDB をインストールして起動します。
root@www:~#
apt -y install mariadb-server
root@www:~#
vi /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf
# 93行目 : デフォルトの文字コードを確認

# 絵文字等 4バイト長の文字を扱う場合は [utf8mb4]

character-set-server  = utf8mb4
collation-server      = utf8mb4_general_ci

root@www:~#
systemctl restart mariadb

[2] MariaDB の初期設定です。
root@www:~#
mysql_secure_installation


NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

# [Unix_Socket] 認証に切り替えるか否か
# [no] でも root のみ デフォルトで [Unix_Socket] 認証は有効
Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

# MariaDB root パスワードを設定するか否か
# デフォルトで [Unix_Socket] 認証が有効となっているが
# root パスワードを設定すると パスワードでも root ログイン可能となる
# root パスワードを設定しない場合は OS の root ユーザーのみが MariaDB root ユーザーとしてログイン可
Change the root password? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

# 匿名ユーザーは削除する
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

# root のリモートログインは無効とする
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

# テストデータベースは削除する
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

# 特権情報をリロードする
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

# MariaDB に root ユーザーで接続

# デフォルトは [Unix_Socket] 認証のためそのままログイン可

root@www:~#
mysql

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 50
Server version: 10.5.11-MariaDB-1 Debian 11

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

# 以下のようにデフォルトは [Unix_Socket] 認証
MariaDB [(none)]> show grants for root@localhost; 
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost                                                                                                               |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO `root`@`localhost` IDENTIFIED VIA mysql_native_password USING 'invalid' OR unix_socket WITH GRANT OPTION |
| GRANT PROXY ON ''@'%' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION                                                                           |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.000 sec)

# ユーザー情報一覧表示
MariaDB [(none)]> select user,host,password from mysql.user; 
+-------------+-----------+----------+
| User        | Host      | Password |
+-------------+-----------+----------+
| mariadb.sys | localhost |          |
| root        | localhost | invalid  |
| mysql       | localhost | invalid  |
+-------------+-----------+----------+
3 rows in set (0.001 sec)

# データベース一覧表示
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases; 
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
3 rows in set (0.000 sec)

# テストデータベース作成
MariaDB [(none)]> create database test_database; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.000 sec)

# テストデータベースにテストテーブル作成
MariaDB [(none)]> create table test_database.test_table (id int, name varchar(50), address varchar(50), primary key (id)); 
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.108 sec)

# テストテーブルにデータ投入
MariaDB [(none)]> insert into test_database.test_table(id, name, address) values("001", "Debian", "Hiroshima"); 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.036 sec)

# テストテーブル表示
MariaDB [(none)]> select * from test_database.test_table; 
+----+--------+-----------+
| id | name   | address   |
+----+--------+-----------+
|  1 | Debian | Hiroshima |
+----+--------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.000 sec)

# テストデータベース削除
MariaDB [(none)]> drop database test_database; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.111 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> exit
Bye
[3] MariaDB の既存のデータを全て消去して初期化する場合は、以下のように実行します。
root@www:~#
systemctl stop mariadb

root@www:~#
rm -rf /var/lib/mysql/*

root@www:~#
mysql_install_db --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --user=mysql

root@www:~#
systemctl start mariadb

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