Ubuntu 18.04
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Lynis : Security Audit Tool
2018/11/30
 
Install Lynis which is the Security Audit Tool.
[1] Install Lynis.
root@dlp:~#
apt -y install lynis
[2] How to use Lynis.
# run like follows for initial scanning

root@dlp:~#
lynis audit system

[ Lynis 2.6.2 ]

################################################################################
  Lynis comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are
  welcome to redistribute it under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
  See the LICENSE file for details about using this software.

  2007-2018, CISOfy - https://cisofy.com/lynis/
  Enterprise support available (compliance, plugins, interface and tools)
################################################################################


[+] Initializing program
------------------------------------
  - Detecting OS...                                           [ DONE ]
  - Checking profiles...                                      [ DONE ]

  ---------------------------------------------------
  Program version:           2.6.2
  Operating system:          Linux
  Operating system name:     Ubuntu Linux
  Operating system version:  18.04
  Kernel version:            4.15.0
  Hardware platform:         x86_64
  Hostname:                  dlp
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Profiles:                  /etc/lynis/default.prf
  Log file:                  /var/log/lynis.log
  Report file:               /var/log/lynis-report.dat
  Report version:            1.0
  Plugin directory:          /etc/lynis/plugins
  ---------------------------------------------------
  Auditor:                   [Not Specified]
  Language:                  en
  Test category:             all
  Test group:                all
  ---------------------------------------------------
  
.....
.....

================================================================================

================================================================================

  Lynis security scan details:

  Hardening index : 52 [##########          ]
  Tests performed : 223
  Plugins enabled : 1

  Components:
  - Firewall               [V]
  - Malware scanner        [X]

  Lynis Modules:
  - Compliance Status      [?]
  - Security Audit         [V]
  - Vulnerability Scan     [V]

  Files:
  - Test and debug information      : /var/log/lynis.log
  - Report data                     : /var/log/lynis-report.dat

================================================================================
  Notice: Lynis update available
  Current version : 262    Latest version : 270
================================================================================

  Lynis 2.6.2

  Auditing, system hardening, and compliance for UNIX-based systems
  (Linux, macOS, BSD, and others)

  2007-2018, CISOfy - https://cisofy.com/lynis/
  Enterprise support available (compliance, plugins, interface and tools)

================================================================================

  [TIP]: Enhance Lynis audits by adding your settings to custom.prf (see /etc/lynis/default.prf for all settings)
[3] The report of scanning result is saved on /var/log/lynis-report.dat. Search the file with words "warning" or "suggestion", then it shows recommended settings like follows.
root@dlp:~#
grep -E "^warning|^suggestion" /var/log/lynis-report.dat

suggestion[]=LYNIS|Version of Lynis outdated, consider upgrading to the latest version|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0280|Install libpam-tmpdir to set $TMP and $TMPDIR for PAM sessions|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0285|Install libpam-usb to enable multi-factor authentication for PAM sessions|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0810|Install apt-listbugs to display a list of critical bugs prior to each APT installation.|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0811|Install apt-listchanges to display any significant changes prior to any upgrade via APT.|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0830|Install debian-goodies so that you can run checkrestart after upgrades to determine which services are using old versions of libraries and need restarting.|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0831|Install needrestart, alternatively to debian-goodies, so that you can run needrestart after upgrades to determine which daemons are using old versions of libraries and need restarting.|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0870|Install debsecan to generate lists of vulnerabilities which affect this installation.|-|-|
suggestion[]=CUST-0875|Install debsums for the verification of installed package files against MD5 checksums.|-|-|
suggestion[]=DEB-0880|Install fail2ban to automatically ban hosts that commit multiple authentication errors.|-|-|
suggestion[]=BOOT-5122|Set a password on GRUB bootloader to prevent altering boot configuration (e.g. boot in single user mode without password)|-|-|
suggestion[]=AUTH-9262|Install a PAM module for password strength testing like pam_cracklib or pam_passwdqc|-|-|
suggestion[]=AUTH-9286|Configure minimum password age in /etc/login.defs|-|-|
suggestion[]=AUTH-9286|Configure maximum password age in /etc/login.defs|-|-|
warning[]=AUTH-9308|No password set for single mode|-|-|
suggestion[]=AUTH-9308|Set password for single user mode to minimize physical access attack surface|-|-|
suggestion[]=AUTH-9328|Default umask in /etc/login.defs could be more strict like 027|-|-|
suggestion[]=FILE-6310|To decrease the impact of a full /home file system, place /home on a separated partition|-|-|
suggestion[]=FILE-6310|To decrease the impact of a full /tmp file system, place /tmp on a separated partition|-|-|
suggestion[]=FILE-6310|To decrease the impact of a full /var file system, place /var on a separated partition|-|-|
suggestion[]=STRG-1840|Disable drivers like USB storage when not used, to prevent unauthorized storage or data theft|-|-|
suggestion[]=NAME-4404|Add the IP name and FQDN to /etc/hosts for proper name resolving|-|-|
suggestion[]=PKGS-7370|Install debsums utility for the verification of packages with known good database.|-|-|
warning[]=PKGS-7392|Found one or more vulnerable packages.|-|-|
suggestion[]=PKGS-7392|Update your system with apt-get update, apt-get upgrade, apt-get dist-upgrade and/or unattended-upgrades|-|-|
suggestion[]=PKGS-7394|Install package apt-show-versions for patch management purposes|-|-|
warning[]=NETW-2705|Couldn't find 2 responsive nameservers|-|-|
suggestion[]=NETW-2705|Check your resolv.conf file and fill in a backup nameserver if possible|-|-|
suggestion[]=NETW-3032|Consider running ARP monitoring software (arpwatch,arpon)|-|-|
warning[]=FIRE-4512|iptables module(s) loaded, but no rules active|-|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|AllowTcpForwarding (YES --> NO)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|ClientAliveCountMax (3 --> 2)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|Compression (YES --> (DELAYED|NO))|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|LogLevel (INFO --> VERBOSE)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|MaxAuthTries (6 --> 2)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|MaxSessions (10 --> 2)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|PermitRootLogin (WITHOUT-PASSWORD --> NO)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|Port (22 --> )|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|TCPKeepAlive (YES --> NO)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|X11Forwarding (YES --> NO)|-|
suggestion[]=SSH-7408|Consider hardening SSH configuration|AllowAgentForwarding (YES --> NO)|-|
suggestion[]=BANN-7126|Add a legal banner to /etc/issue, to warn unauthorized users|-|-|
suggestion[]=BANN-7130|Add legal banner to /etc/issue.net, to warn unauthorized users|-|-|
suggestion[]=ACCT-9622|Enable process accounting|-|-|
suggestion[]=ACCT-9626|Enable sysstat to collect accounting (no results)|-|-|
suggestion[]=ACCT-9628|Enable auditd to collect audit information|-|-|
suggestion[]=FINT-4350|Install a file integrity tool to monitor changes to critical and sensitive files|-|-|
suggestion[]=TOOL-5002|Determine if automation tools are present for system management|-|-|
suggestion[]=KRNL-6000|One or more sysctl values differ from the scan profile and could be tweaked||Change sysctl value or disable test (skip-test=KRNL-6000:<sysctl-key>)|
suggestion[]=HRDN-7230|Harden the system by installing at least one malware scanner, to perform periodic file system scans|-|Install a tool like rkhunter, chkrootkit, OSSEC|
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